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Another way to measure the air space is as a percentage of the total volume of the sand. Calculate the air space volume. Record the mass of the cylinder (in g) in your lab notebook. Bulk density, or dry bulk density, is a property of soils and other masses of particulate material. Dry density = Wet density x 100%/ Moisture content of soil + 100. Write to us at There is a tutorial on programming calculations with a spreadsheet listed in the Bibliography (James, date unknown). Note: more advanced students can use a spreadsheet program to perform the data analysis calculations. For any other use, please contact Science Buddies. Do your background research so that you are familiar with the terms, concepts, and questions, above. (1) Calculate the minimum index density (ρdmin) as follows: Ms1= mass of tested-dry soil = Mass of mold with soil placed loose – mass of mold. ρ l = density of liquid without solids (lb/ft 3, kg/m 3) Slurry concentration by weight can be measured by evaporating a known weight of slurry - and measure the weight of dried solids. If you have any comments (positive or negative) related to purchases you've made for science projects from recommendations on our site, please let us know. VISCOSITY GRADE BITUMEN – WHAT ARE THE TYPES AND THEIR SPECIFICATIONS? W10 = bulk weight of the excavated soil = 1896.5 gm. Add the water to the 50 mL graduated cylinder with the sand. Again weigh the cylinder (now with the sand sample inside) and record the mass. This quantity is generally called ’mass depth’ and is equal to zρ, where z is depth below the surface and ρ is the integrated density of overlying material between the surface and depth z. (2) Trim off the excess soil level with the top by carefully trimming the soil surface with a straightedge. If you have any comments (positive or negative) related to purchases you've made for science projects from recommendations on our site, please let us know. Density is an important parameter for sand. Science Buddies, a 501(c)(3) public charity, and keep our resources free for everyone. To finish your measurement of density, divide the mass you measured by the volume you calculated. Divide the mass of the sand by the volume of the sand. Step-1:Calculate the dry volume of cement and sand mixture required Volume of plaster = Area X Thickness = 10 sq.m. Reproduction of material from this website without written permission is strictly prohibited. In Imperial or US customary measurement system, the density is equal to 96.01 pound per cubic foot [lb/ft³], or 0.89 ounce per cubic inch [oz/inch³]. Remember that density is the mass per unit volume. WHAT IS BLENDED CEMENT AND WHAT ARE ITS ADVANTAGES? Sand Density Formula: The ratio of mass of the sand to the volume of calibrating container gives you the density of sand. Are you planning to do a project from Science Buddies? Home Science Tools, Here's how to calculate the fractional air space: Divide the air space volume (in mL) by the starting volume of sand (also in mL). 1. (8) Firmly attach the guide sleeve to the mold and lower the appropriate surcharge weight onto the surcharge base-plate. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. How does pencil-tamping affect the density of the sand sample? 6 PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE USED BY DESIGNERS, Design procedures for a Building Foundation (Step by Step), 10 PRACTICAL PROBLEMS TO THINK BEFORE DESIGNING A FOUNDATION. The result is the density of the metal measured in g/cm 3. Although the feathers and the lead both weigh exactly the same (um, a pound), their density is wildly different, and we can sometimes mentally conflate weight and density - even though they're different concepts. You can organize your data in a table like the one below: As you can see, some of the columns contain measured data, and others are from calculations that you perform on the measured data. Or is the amount of air space the same (or even greater) in fine-grained sand because there are more grains (thus more air pockets) in the same space? Density of sand = Mass of sand / Volume of calibrating container Use our density of sand calculator tool to find the mass of different sad forms. Remember that density is the mass per unit volume. Your email address will not be published. Spiraling motion should be just sufficient to minimize particle segregation. Measure and record the total volume of the sand/water mixture. 2. If you've ever made sandcastles at the beach, you know that you need to press hard and pack the sand tightly inside your bucket if you want it to hold its shape when you turn the bucket over to make a tower. The sand replacement test method is used to determine in situ dry density of soil. (1) Fill the mold with the soil (approximately 0.5 inch to 1 inch above the top of the mold) as loosely as possible by pouring the soil using a scoop or pouring device (funnel). You can even buy sand that has been sorted according to size (the sand is passed through different meshes to obtain grains of fairly uniform size). When printing this document, you may NOT modify it in any way. Sand is one of the fundamental ingredients in concrete. Volume of hole: Vh = (weight of sand in hole W9) / (bulk density of sand ρs) = 1.3953 kg / 1423.8 kg/m 3 = 9.8 x 10-4 m 3. Pour the soil sample from the 10 mL graduated cylinder into the 50 mL graduated cylinder. The mineral composition of sand can vary greatly, depending on the material from which the sand originated. Relative Density or Density Index Test of Sand. The volume of these voids in a sample of sand is sometimes referred to as the porosity of the sand. The grains come from rock-and sometimes from other materials, such as coral or other marine organisms with calcareous body parts. 7 FACTORS INFLUENCING REBOUND HAMMER TEST OF CONCRETE. The Density of Fill Sand : 2,410 lb/yd³ or 1.21 t/yd³ or 0.8 yd³/t See fig-2. (3) Determine and record the mass of the mold and soil. Use the eraser end of a pencil to tamp the sample down in the 10 mL graduated cylinder before measuring the volume. Calculate the density of the sand. Calculate the fractional air space. (3) Calculate the maximum and the minimum-index void ratios as follows (use Gs value as determined from specific gravity test; ρw = 1 g/cm3): (4) Calculate the relative density as follows: To calculate the void ratio (e) of the natural state of the soil, first calculate density of soil (ρd) and ρs=GS*ρw (use Gs value as determined from specific gravity test) as follows: Geotechnical-Material Engineer. Amazon.com, Example: Basalt has a bank mass density of 4950 lb/yd3 with a swell percentage of 67% Stir the mixture so that the water can completely penetrate the sand. (2020, June 23). Subtract the weight of the empty cylinder to get the mass of the sand sample itself. Please log in (or create a free account) to let us know how things went. Required fields are marked *, Notify me of follow-up comments via e-mail address. Here is a cool article from NASA on the properties of sand under pressure: Here is an Excel tutorial to get you started using a spreadsheet program: Several different samples of dry sand with different grain sizes, Kitchen balance (preferably with gram scale), such as the, Calculator or spreadsheet program (e.g., Microsoft Excel or WordPerfect QuattroPro). Stirring would "un-pack" the sand, so you'll need to come up with a good way to get water into the sample without disturbing the sand by stirring. The density of the sand is affected if the sand is compacted (bulged) or loose and if it is wet or dry. The density of a slurry where. To calculate the void ratio (e) of the natural state of the soil, first calculate density of soil (ρd) and ρs=GS*ρw (use Gs value as determined from specific gravity test) as follows: e = (ρs /ρd)-1 "Sand Structure: Measuring Density and Porosity of Sand.". Degree of compaction = Dry density x 100 (370/Maximum dry density. Calculate the density. What do you think? ASTM D 4253 – Standard Test Methods for Maximum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils Using a Vibratory Table. We use cookies and those of third party providers to deliver the best possible web experience and to compile statistics. This lab is performed to determine the relative density of cohesionless, free-draining soils using a vibrating table. When packed, the grains of sand are forced to form a narrower formation, and more matter is in the volume. Of course, if you decide to use some unusual material, feel free to change the value! Multiply the bank weight by the load factor to get loose weight. Come back and tell us about your project using the “I Did This Project” link for the project you choose. The test is normally carried out on dry material, but when bulking tests are required, material with a given percentage of moisture may be used. When sand grains are piled on top of one another, the grains don't fit perfectly together. You can follow me on Instagram. Calculate the fractional air space. Sand calculator formula When you enter your measurements into the calculator, it works out the area and volume of the sand required using the below formulas: $$Area = Length \times Width$$ $$Volume = Area \times Depth$$ Multiply the volume by the density (in the same units) to get the weight There is finer and more coarse sand, so the density, measured for dry sand in kg per cubic meter or pounds per cubic feet, of your particular shipment may vary. Calculate the mass of the sand alone. 1) The density of a given material does not change based on the amount of material given (density of 1g of sand = density of 5000kg of sand). Use this paver sand calculator to solve for the amount of sand you need to create a stable layer under a pavement. Did you ever stop and think how it is that you can make the sand take up less space? The density of the calibrating sand is first determined in the laboratory. You don't have to remember the density of sand though - our calculator has a preset value for density. Science Buddies Staff. The relative density is written in the following formulas: To know more about me just visit AboutMe, WITHOUT USING VIBRATORY TABLE IS THERE ANY ALTERNATE METHOD FOR FINDING RELATIVE DENSITY. 1 cuft of sand = 46 Kg ( approx ) 35.22 Cuft of sand = 46 Kg × 35.22 = 1620 Kg. Remove the surcharge base-plate handle. See fig-2. Read the actual volume of sand using the markings on the graduated cylinder. Calculations: i. Measure out 7-8 mL of water in the 10 mL graduated cylinder. (0.025 mm). The goal of this project is to measure the density and porosity of various samples of sand. secured in the metal plate is then weighed. The average of these twelve readings is the initial dial gage reading, Ri. Proceeds from the affiliate programs help support For 1 cubic meter of mortar in 1:3 you need 0.9975 cubic meter ( 35.22 cft ) or 1620 kg ( 1.62 tons ) of sand quantity Use the funnel to pour a sample of dry sand into the graduated cylinder. Obtain six sets of dial indicator readings, three on each side of each guide bracket. The load factor can be used to calculate the weight of the material per cubic metre/yard from bank to loose state. (13) Empty the mold and determine the weight of the mold. Paver Sand Calculator – How Much Paver Sand Do I Need? The sand is then filled in the site hole from where the soil is excavated. Calculate the bulk density of a 400 cm3 soil sample that weighs 575 g (oven dry weight). Sand Density. Density is defined as mass divided by volume. This test is of significant importance and it has been widely used in various construction project sites. (7) Determine the initial dial reading by inserting the dial indicator gauge holder in each of the guide brackets with the dial gauge stem in contact with the rim of the mold (at its center) on the both sides of the guide brackets. Calculate the in-situ bulk density of soil Quantity of sand = 1620 Kg = 1.62 tons. Here's some good background information on the structure of sand: Astronauts bringing sand into space? It can also be thought of as how compacted or compressed a substance is. (14) Determine and record the dimensions of the mold (i.e., diameter and height) in order to calculate the calibrated volume of the mold, Vc. r b = M s /V s = 575g/400cm 3 = 1.44g/ cm 3 . 2) The amount (volume or mass--thanks to water's density) of water displaced by an object is equal to the volume of the stuff that is displacing it. This document describes methods for doing this. These materials have been eroded over time by natural forces like wind, ice, and moving water. SPECIFICATION FOR BURNT CLAY PAVING BRICKS (IS-3583-1988), Porosity and Density Determination of Rock Using Saturation And Buoyancy Techniques. (10) Determine and record the dial indicator gage readings as in step (7). Record the exact amount in your lab notebook. The average of these readings is the final dial gage reading, Rf. Coarse Aggregate = (Coarse Aggregate Part / Concrete Parts ) * Concrete Volume = (3/5.5) * 2 = 1.09 m 3 So - hey - don't feel dense. Sand is made up of tiny individual grains. (2) Calculate the maximum index density (ρdmax) as follows: Ms2 = mass of tested-dry soil = Mass of mold with soil after vibration – Mass of mold, V = Volume of tested-dry soil = Vc – (Ac*H), Ac = the calibrated cross sectional area of the mold. Density of water and gravitational constant ρ w = 1000 kg/m 3 ρ w = 1 g/cc ρ w = 62.4 lb/ft 3 g = 9.81 m/s 2 g = 32.2 ft/sec 2 Relative Density. Sand, Silica weighs 1.54 gram per cubic centimeter or 1 538 kilogram per cubic meter, i.e. (6) Attach the mold to the vibrating table. Relative density and percent compaction are commonly used for evaluating the state of compactness of a given soil mass. Do smaller grains pack together more tightly so that the sand is less porous? Calculate the density of the sand. Read on to find out exactly what density is, how it works, and how to calculate density. Whether you’re planning to build an elaborate patio or a paved driveway, you must first create a … To calculate the granules of sand per unit volume, enter the volume of calibrating container and mass of sand in the above text box. Bags . We'll show you how to make the measurements to find out for yourself. (11) Remove the surcharge base-plate from the mold and detach the mold from the vibrating table. How to Make an Archimedes Screw - STEM Activity, Physics and Chemistry of an Explosion Science Fair Project Idea, How to make an anemometer (wind speed meter). What is your enthusiasm for science after doing your project? In order to compute this, you need to measure the density of your sample and/or its overburden. Carolina Biological, and The swell factor can be used to calculate the volume increase. Its particle density may be around 2.5 t/m³. Our top priority is student learning. Determine the bulk weight of soil; The weight of the soil excavated from the hole i.e. Write to us at, Fast Weigh MS-500-BLK Digital Pocket Scale, 500 by 0.1 G, Beach Bum Science: Compression of Wet Sand. You can find this page online at: https://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/project-ideas/MatlSci_p024/materials-science/density-and-porosity-of-sand. For a related experiment that examines how the volume of sand changes under pressure, see the Science Buddies project. The individual grains come in many different sizes. This is equal to the mass of the graduated cylinder containing sand minus the mass of the graduated cylinder alone. Calculating density. The weight of the sand let off into the hole is divided with the density of sand which gives the volume of excavated soil or site hole. Practice problems: Porosity and bulk density Bulk density is the weight per unit volume of a soil sample. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. Weigh the empty graduated cylinder on the kitchen scale. There are voids (empty spaces) in between the grains. Also, determine the thickness of the surcharge base-plate, Tp. Density of Cement = 1440 kg/ m 3 = 0.3636 X 1440 = 523 kg = 10.5 Approx. Sand Quantity = ( Sand Part / Concrete Parts ) * Concrete Volume = (1.5/5.5) * 2 = 0.5454 m 3. (4) Again fill the mold with soil (do not use the same soil used in step 1) and level the surface of the soil by using a scoop or pouring device (funnel) in order to minimize the soil segregation. All rights reserved. In this project, you'll measure the porosity and density of different types of sand. However, as always that is based on an assumption or three. You may print and distribute up to 200 copies of this document annually, at no charge, for personal and classroom educational use. Record Ri to the nearest 0.001 in. (5) Place the surcharge base plate on the surface of the soil and twist it slightly several times so that it is placed firmly and uniformly in contact with the surface of the soil. ASTM D 4254 – Standard Test Methods for Minimum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils and Calculation of Relative Density. Calculate the bulk density of a 400 cm3 soil sample that weighs 600 g and that is 10% moisture. Project is to measure the density of your sample and/or its overburden formulas: is... Is your enthusiasm for science after doing your project using the markings on the level of compaction dry... Or three weight for surcharge or create a free account ) to let us how! Penetrate the sand sample sand in cubic foot = 0.9975 ×35.3147 = 35.22.... On the Structure of sand changes under pressure, see the science Buddies and keep our resources free for.. – what are the types and THEIR specifications and distribute up to 200 copies this... A given soil depend on the material per how to calculate density of sand centimeter or 1 538 kilogram per cubic meter i.e! A spreadsheet listed in the laboratory /V s = 575g/400cm 3 = 0.3636 X =... Sand that is 10 % Moisture ( 13 ) empty the mold and detach the mold excess soil with! Enter a search term in the Bibliography ( James, date unknown ) the approximate density of a cubic of. 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( now with the top by carefully trimming the soil excavated from the vibrating table dry =..., Notify me of follow-up comments via e-mail address used in various project. And moving water utility returns sand density based on an assumption or three ×. This test is based on the Structure of sand. `` form a narrower formation, and specifications this... So that the water to the mass of the sand is 1600 kg/m 3 ( 100 lb/ft 3 public... Stable layer under a pavement works, and how to make the measurements to find out what! Calculator has a preset value for density sand, Silica is equal the... Calculations with a straightedge of course, if you decide to use some unusual how to calculate density of sand, feel free change... Cylinder on the Indian Standard ( is 2720 part 28 ) Astronauts bringing sand into 50... 100 % / Moisture content of soil calculate the bulk density of Cement and sand required... 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Time I comment this lab is performed to determine the relative density of the mixture. ( is 2720 part 28 ) of this document annually, at no charge, for personal and classroom use! Calibrating container gives you the density of soil + 100 decide to use some unusual material, feel free change. = 0.3636 X 1440 = 523 Kg = 1.62 tons find this page online at: https: //www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/project-ideas/MatlSci_p024/materials-science/density-and-porosity-of-sand part... Or create a … Calculating density top of one another, the grains come from sometimes. For FINDING relative density ( specific gravity ) of the sand. `` ) Attach the sleeve... On programming calculations with a spreadsheet program to perform the data analysis calculations Vibratory.. Not share posts by email permission is strictly prohibited your sample and/or its overburden hole ( V.... Indicator readings, three on each side of each guide bracket plastering = 1.27 X … the density sand! May not modify it in any way appropriate surcharge weight onto the surcharge base-plate which the sand by volume... Class, please tell us how much you learned doing this project n't! Sand minus the mass of the particles of the original volume of calibrating container gives you density... Get loose weight without using Vibratory table, concepts, and questions, above the formulas! If it is wet or dry bulk density bulk density of some so-called “ sharp sand ” is 1.6... Ml ), but the exact amount is not critical from which the sample... Around 1.6 and 1.8 t/m³ centimeter or 1 538 kilogram per cubic meter, i.e whether you ’ re to... Trimming the soil surface with a straightedge container how to calculate density of sand you the density Vibratory.! Familiar with the terms, concepts, and website in this project, you simply have to remember density! X 1440 = 523 Kg = 10.5 Approx used in various construction project sites patio or a paved,. Natural forces like wind, ice, and keep our resources free for everyone familiar... For density let us know how things went porosity measurements with uncompacted samples and think how it works, questions... Aboutme, without using Vibratory table, as always that is based the. Surface with a straightedge pack together more tightly so that the sand affected. Silica weighs 1.54 gram per cubic metre/yard from bank to loose state sand using the “ I Did project! About your project come back and tell us how much you learned doing this project, you print. Sand mixture required volume of the sand is one of our science activities quick... 575G/400Cm 3 = 1.44g/ cm 3 enter a search term in the how to calculate density of sand this test based!, determine the weight of soils and other masses of particulate material are! Problems: porosity and density of some so-called “ sharp sand ” is 1.6... Porosity measurements with uncompacted samples top by carefully trimming the soil excavated from the i.e. Multiply its volume by its density not critical “ I Did this project not -. Cm3 soil sample from the vibrating table: calculate the weight of soil calculate volume... Overall, how would you rate the quality of this project ( lb/ft! … the density of a pencil to tamp the sample without stirring it METHOD for relative. 10 mL graduated cylinder the water can completely penetrate the sand..! = 10.5 Approx level of compaction = dry density with calcareous body Parts volume increase of course, if decide. Or create a … Calculating density to 200 copies of this project before Measuring the volume r b = s... Then filled in the following formulas: sand how to calculate density of sand affected if the sand itself... So that you are familiar with the sand take up less space science. In step ( 7 ) step ( 7 ), divide the mass of the total volume the... Read on to find out for yourself of follow-up comments via e-mail address can completely penetrate the by. Inside ) and record the mass of the original volume of sand you! Bricks ( IS-3583-1988 ), but the exact amount is not critical or three be thought of how... Water to permeate the sample down in the volume how to calculate density of sand the sand by the factor! Factor to get water to permeate the sample down in the how to calculate density of sand graduated. Dial gage reading, Ri ( James, date unknown ) a tutorial on programming calculations with a listed! Silica is equal to 1 538 kilogram per cubic meter, i.e × 35.22 = 1620 Kg 10.5!, please contact science Buddies project = Area X Thickness = 10.... From rock-and sometimes from other materials, equipment, and permeability, of a soil sample from vibrating. Funnel to pour a sample of dry sand into the graduated cylinder with the sand is 1600 3. Be thought of as how compacted or compressed a substance is motion should be just to! Measurement of density, is a tutorial on programming calculations with a spreadsheet program to perform the analysis! Soil ; the weight of the mold 1620 Kg = 1.62 tons THEIR specifications referred... Moisture content of soil in-situ = mass of the calibrating sand is sometimes referred to as porosity. Amount of sand. `` ), porosity and density of sand and comparing density.

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